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Contemporary Pediatrics Cases

Can you solve these 6 puzzling cases?We know you love a diagnostic challenge. Can you crack these 6 puzzling cases?
Rapidly growing nodule on infant’s posterior thighThe parents of a healthy 5-month-old boy bring him to the office for evaluation of an enlarging yellowish nodule on the back of his right thigh. It started as a pink macule several months ago and became yellow and lumpy over the last month. The infant was born at term and has grown and developed normally. His parents deny any trauma, but report occasional bleeding from the surface of the nodule. They deny any new medications or outdoor exposures. There is no history of new topical skin products.
Child’s ear pain progresses to leg pain, arm pain, and feverAn 8-year-old girl is admitted to the hospital with complaints of right ear pain, right leg pain, left arm pain, and fever after a week of worsening symptoms.
Infant girl develops bulging sacral massA 3-week-old female presented to the emergency department with a 3-day history of a progressively enlarging, erythematous, seemingly painful lump on her back.
Stubborn ring of rash around a boy's mouthThe mother of a healthy 11-year-old boy brings him to the office for help to clear a rash that has persisted around his mouth for 3 months. Although the boy rarely licks his lips, he does not use lip products and has not changed his dental products.
Infant’s seizures and skull fracture could point to child abuseA 5-month-old Hispanic male presented to the emergency department (ED) at a children’s hospital in the Northeast United States directly from his daycare after caretakers witnessed 2 shaking, seizure-like episodes. The episodes lasted 1 to 2 minutes in the setting of a fever as palpated by the parents.
Girl’s papular rash will not respond to treatmentThe mother of a healthy 5-year-old girl brings her to the office for evaluation of 2 itchy plaques on her right ankle that have worsened over the last 10 days despite treatment for possible tinea corporis with topical clotrimazole 1% ointment and hydrocortisone 2.5% ointment. A fungal culture is pending.
Pallor and swelling in an athlete’s upper armA 15-year-old female presents to the emergency department of a community hospital with acute onset of duskiness in her left arm.
Girl’s blistering rash spreads to eyes and faceA healthy 9-year-old female presents with a 1-day history of fever, progressive rash, conjunctivitis, and superficial oral ulcers.
Nervous teenager’s hands turn blueThe father of a healthy 15-year-old girl brings her to the emergency department (ED) for evaluation of blue hands.